"Whither he is hasting, who knows? Does anyone consider whence he came?"
[Quote from Goeth's "Egmont" at the end of his "Poetry and Truth"]
Journeys in the Lives of Central European Artists since 1500

Travelling Scene from Beethoven's Time



The purpose of this special page is to shed light on the topic of journeys in the lives of artists and musicians, mainly during the classic and romantic style periods and to provide links to relevant pages of our Beethoven Website, but also links to other websites. In doing so, we not only concentrate on interesting educational journeys or concert tours, but also on those seemingly dull movements from place to place that marked important changes or ended certain periods in the lives of these artists. Our exploration might also make us realize how travelling has changed during the course of this time. As always, we wish you a great deal of reading pleasure. 




Fast pace, stress and disharmony might be accompanying factors in the daily travels of all those modern soloists or conductors who delight us with their top performances in the field of classical music today. On the one hand we may and on the other we should hope that they can find strength and balance to counter their stress in music, itself. 

Out of times in which the travels of the few were the exception to the lives of the many spent within their local communities and in which music still played more of a serving role, over the centuries, musicians, along with other artists and keen minds, would increasingly have the opportunity to educate themselves by travelling and musicians, even to earn a living by performing on concert tours.   

However, in the early Middle Ages, sometimes also referred to as "the dark ages", Europe, in comparison to the flourishing culture of the Muslim world, was still considered somewhat primitve. Tragically, the West was able to "overcome" this handicap through its crusades to the Middle East and due to the increasing trade that this development brought with it. This exchange was also of a cultural nature and increased the West's interest in its own classical past. As a consequence, from about 1500 on, northern European artists and keen minds would travel to the classical south in pursuit of it. One of the first travelling artists known to us was the German painter Albrecht Dürer. From 1505-1507, on his second journey to Italy, he visited Venice and came into contract with Italian painters. 


                     Dürers Sel'f Portrait
                          from the Year 1500

                         Venice around 1500

Interesting Links on the Topic of Albrecht Dürer
in General and his Visits to Venice

Dürer at Wikipedia

Project Gutenberg: Memoirs of Journeys to Venice by Dürer

At Fullbooks.com: Memoirs of Journeys to Venice by Dürer


During this time, the powerful of the age had collectors bring them interesting objects from the classical south. They then tried to exhibit them in specially-built facilities of their Residences. One example for this is the Antiquarium in Munich that was built by Duke Albrecht V from 1568-1571. He would display his classical sculptures in it.


The Antiquarium at the Residence in Munich

Link to the Website of the Aantiquarium

The Antiquarium at the Website of the
Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen
Schlösser und Seen



The above reference to the Antiquarium in Munich moves us chronologically closer to the year 1577, in which the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens was born in Siegen in Germany. He spent the years 1600 to 1608 in Italy. However, he also travelled Europe as a diplomat and was actively involved in brokering peace in his war-torn times.


                                       Rubens: The
                            Mantua Friendship Painting

                     Rubens: Peasants'Dance

Links on the Topic of Rubens

Rubens at Wikipedia

Rubens Online: Rubens Painting Database in Flemish

Rubens at Italian Renaissance Art.com

Wall Street Journal: The Secret Diplomatic Careeer of Rubens



Also the German Baroque composer Heinrich Schütz, who was born in 1585, was drawn to Italy. From 1609 - 1612, he lived in Venice and learned from the Organist at St. Mark's Cathedral, Giovanni Gabrieli. 


         Heinrich Schütz


                Giovanni Gabrieli

Heinrich Schütz Links

Heinrich Schütz at Wikipedia

International Heinrich Schütz Society [in German]



For German musicians and artists, the Thirty Year War that raged from 1618 to 1648 also meant that their travels to far-away places were restricted.



                     Defenestration of Prague 1618

                        The Peace of Münster 1648


The year 1685 marks the birth of the two greatest German Baroque composers, George Frideric Handel und Johann Sebastian Bach. While Handel, after his travels to Italy, turned out to be the most successful German musical emigrant by becoming a naturalized British subject, Bach was only able to explore parts of Germany, mostly on foot. 




         Bach's Places of Residence

    J.S. Bach

                 Bach's Travels

Some J.S. Bach Links

Bach at Wikipedia

Jan Hanford's Bach Page

Bach Manuscripts by Prof. Christoph Wolff



                        George Frideric Handel

                               Rome in the 18th Century

Links on G.F. Handel

Handel at Wikipedia

The Handel Institute

Handel in Italy: Music for Italian Patrons

takte: Handel in Rome
[English Article featured by the Bärenreiter Verlag]




Our exploration now leads us into the classical period of the German-speaking area of Europe, a topic on which we can also offer you links to contributions on our own website. Let us begin with the most famous German artist to travel to Italy, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.   



Goethe in Italy
[Painting by Tischbein]


However, as we know, before Goethe would travel to Italy, he had already travelled to other destinations. Some of these and other important travels during his lifetime are listed in the table below.




Goethe's studies of law in Leipzig


Goethe's studies of law in Straßburg 


Goethe's practicum in Wetzlar


Goethe's first journey to Switzerland with the brothers Stolberg


In November, Goethe arrived in Weimar.


In September, Goethe travelled to Eisenach and to the Wartburg.  In November/December he rode through the Harz mountains alone.


In May, Goethe travelled with Duke Karl August to Berlin and Potsdam.  In September, he stayed at Erfurt, Eisenach, Wilhelmstal and at the Wartburg.


Goethe travelled to Switzerland with Duke Karl August for the second time.


Goethe stayed at Erfurt.


In December, Goethe travelled to Gotha, Eisenach and Erfurt. 


March: On behalf of Duke Karl August, Goethe visited the Thuringian courts. December:  Goethe travelled to Erfurt, Dessau and Leipzig.


After stays at Erfurt, Gotha and Wilhelmsthal, in September/October, Goethe travelled to the Harz maintains for the second time, and also to Göttingen and Kassel. 


In August, Goethe travelled to the Harz mountains, for the third time.


From June to August, Goethe travelled with Karl Ludwig von Knebel through the Fichtelgebirge.  In this year he also took the baths at Karlsbad, for the first time and met Frau von Stein and Johann Gottfried Herder there.


After his second stay at Karlsbad in Juli and August, in September, Goethe set out from there to Italy via Munich, Innsbruck, Verona and Padua to Venice. In October, he continued his journey via Bologna to Florence and Rome. In February 1787, he travelled to Naples and Sicily. [More on his Italian journey through our link below to our own special section on the creation history of Beethoven's music to Goethe's play Egmont].


Back in Weimar, in September, Goethe went to Aschersleben and to the Harz mountains.


From March to May, Goethe was in Italy for the second time, namely in Venice. In July, he travelled to the Prussian military camp near Krakau and Tchenstochow.


Following Duke Karl August, Goethe took part in the military campaign against France, as an observer. In November, Goethe stayed in Düsseldorf with Heinrich Jacobi.  In December he visited Princess Gallitzin in Münster.


From May to July, Goethe stayed in Mainz and witnessed its occupation.


In Juli and August, Goethe stayed at Karlsbad.


In August Goethe travelled to Switzerland again.


In April Goethe travelled with Duke Karl August to Leipzig and Dessau.


In June, Goethe travelled to Pyrmont with his son August, and also visited Göttingen and Kassel.


In June and July, Goethe stayed at Lauchstädt, Halle and Giebichenstein.


In May, Goethe went to Lauchstädt, Halle, Merseburg and Naumburg.


From August to September, Goethe stayed at Lauchstädt and Halle.


After Goethe stayed at Lauchstädt from July to September, he also travelled to Madgeburg and Halberstadt.


From June to August Goethe stayed at Karlsbad.


From May to September Goethe stayed at Karlsbad again.


From May to September: Stay at Karlsbad and Franzensbad.


From May to September:  Goethe stayed at Karlsbad, Teplitz and in Dresden.


May and June:  Stay at Karlsbad with his wife Christiane and Riemer.


May to September:  Stays at Karlsbad and Teplitz.  Meeting with Beethoven!


April to August:  Goethe stayed at Naumburg, Teplitz and in Dresden.


July to October:  Goethe travelled to the Rhine and Main and to Heidelberg.


In May Goethe travelled to the Rhine and Main again. In July, with Freiherr von Stein, he went from Nassau to Cologne.


After the death of his wife in June, Goethe stayed in Bad Tennstedt from July to September.


From July to September:  Stay at Karlsbad.


August to September:  stay at Karlsbad.


April:  stay at Karlsbad.


July to September:  stays at Marienbad and Eger. Meeting with Ulrike von Levetzow


June to August:  stays at Marienbad and Eger.


July to August:  Goethe stayed at Marienbad and Eger for the last time. Farewell from Ulrike von Levetzow.  The Marienbad Elegy is written on the return journey to Weimar.

Following are some interesting general Goethe links, followed by a link to our own website's creation history of Beethoven's music to Goethe's play Egmont. On this page, you will also find a great deal of information about Goethe's first journey to Italy.


Goethe at Wikipedia

Autobiograpy by Goethe: Poetry and Truth, Part I

Autobiography by Goethe: Poetry and Truth, Part 2

Works by Goethe at Project Gutenberg

Works by Goethe at Zeno.org
[in German]

Music to Goethe's Egmont
Link to our own Creation History


In contrast to Goethe's life, any travel activity in Schiller's life might appear modest. Schiller's movements from place to place, by and large, mark important changes in his life.


Friedrich Schiller
after a portrait study by Weitsch


Some of those stations are listed below:




Birth of Schiller at Marbach


The Schiller family lived at Lorch. 


The Schillers moved to Ludwigsburg.


On the order of Duke Karl Eugen, Schiller attended the Karlsschule in Stuttgart. In 1780, he received a post as regiment physician.


January:  Schiller secretly travelled to Mannheim and attended the premiere of his first drama, Die Räuber. May: Second secret visit to Mannheim. June: On account of this visit, Schiller was arrested for two weeks. August: Duke Karl Eugen forbade Schiller to write. September: With Andreas Streicher, Schiller fled to Mannheim [later Oggersheim]. November/ December: from there, he fled to Bauerbach and befriended Reinwald at Meiningen.


After his unrequited love to Frau von Wolzogen's daughter, in July/August, Schiller returned to Mannheim via Frankfort. Contract with Dalberg.


Schiller travelled to Darmstadt and read from his first act of Don Carlos at the court there, in the presence of Duke Karl August of Weimar, and received the title of Councillor from him.


In April Schiller left Mannheim and arrived in Leipzig. May: Stay at Gohlis near Leipzig.


July: At the invitation of Charlotte von Kalb, Schiller travelled via Leipzig and Naumburg to Weimar. In December, he visited the family von Lengefeld in Rudolstadt for the first time.


January-April: Charlotte von Lengefeld in Weimar.  May: Schiller in Rudolstadt.  September:  Schiller met Goethe at the von Lengefelds. October:  Stay at Rudolstadt.  December:  Schiller was appointed Professor at Jena.


May: Schiller's inauguration speech at Jena.


January: Schiller was seriously ill. July: Stay at Karlsbad.


In April, Schiller stayed in Leipzig and Dresden.


In August, Schiller visited his parents in Württemberg and stayed in Heilbronn. September: Schiller stayed in Ludwigsburg.


March: Schiller stayed in Tübingen and Stuttgart amd returned to Jena in May.


Schiller moved from Jena toh Weimar.


July: Schiller stayed at Lauchstädt.


April: Schiller travelled to Berlin.


May 9: Schiller died in Weimar.

Below you will find some interesting general Schiller Links, followed by a special Link to our own creation history of the "Ode to Joy"



Schiller at Wikipedia

Schiller at Project Gutenberg

Schiller at World Catalog

Schiller Multimedial

Our Creation History of the "Ode to Joy"


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart spent many years of his life travelling and offers us a lot of interesting material to explore.


               The Mozarts on their European Journey

                    Mozart in Italy

                                   The Mozarts in Salzburg

A brief listing of these travels is featured in the following table;

< R>




Birth of Mozart in Salzburg


Journey to Munich and Vienna with his father Leopold and hisr sister Nannerl. 


Long European Journey of the Mozarts to Paris, London and back. More on this through our Link below.


Journey with his father and Nannerl to Vienna.


First journey to Italy with his father Leopold. In August 1771 brief second trip to Italy.


Third journey to Italy with his father Leopold.


Journey with his father to Vienna.


Journey with his father to Munich.


Journey with his mother, first to Mannheim and then to Paris.  Death of his mother there in July. Return to Salzburg.


Journey to Munich. Journey to Vienna and stay in Vienna. 


Journey with Konstanze to Salzburg.


Journey with Konstanze to Praguenbsp; In October: Second Journey to Prague.


Journey with Prince Lichnowsky via Prague to Leipzig and Dresden to Berlin.


Journey to Frankfort to the Imperial Coronation.


September:  brief journey to Prague. December 5th: Mozart's death in Vienna.

Below you will find some interesting general Mozart Links, followed by special links to our website: 



Mozart at Wikipedia

Salzburg Mozarteum Foundation

The Mozart Project by Steve Boerner

European Mozart Ways [Website on Mozart's Travels]

Our Own Webstie on the Topic Mozart und Beethoven
1. Mozart Time TAble with Calendar on the European Journey
2. Beethoven, Mozart and the Magic Flute

Music and Literature
Our Translation of Mörike's
Mozart on His Journey to Prague

Only during the last third of his life would Franz Joseph Haydn have an opportunity to travel, but when he did, with his two journeys to England, he would cement his position as Europe's foremost composer.

                      Joseph Haydn

                         London in the 18th Century

The major stations of Haydn's life, including his travels, are listed briefly below: 




After his birth, Haydn lived with his parents in his native village of Rohrau in Lower Austria.


Haydn lived with relatives in the nearby town of Hainburg and received his first musical training there.


Up to his vocal change during his puberty, Haydn lived in Vienna at the Kapellhaus, the residence of the choir boys of St. Stephen's Cathedral.


After his vocal change, Haydn briefly lived with the family of Johann Michael Spangler, a singer at Vienna's St. Michael's Church.


Haydn lived in Vienna. Travels: Pilgrimage to Mariazell and in 1753, with his teacher Michael Porpora, summer residence at Mannersdorf.


Haydn was in the service of Count Morzin. With him, he spent his winters in Vienna and his summers at Dolni Lukavice in today's Czech Republic.


Haydn worked as Vice Kapellmeister of the Esterhazys and spent his time partly at the Esterhazy Palace in Eisenstadt and partly in Vienna.


Haydn continued to work for the Esterhazys; however, they had changed their residence to their new palace Esterhaza in Hungary. During the mid-1770's, Haydn travelled to Pressburg with the musicians of the Esterhazys.


After the death of Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy, Haydn moved to Vienna and lived there until the end of his life.


Haydn went on his first journey to England. Both on his way to England and on his way back, he stopped over in Bonn. Meeting with Beethoven.


Haydn went on his second journey to England.


Haydn died on May 31 in Vienna.

Below you will find some interesting Haydn Links: 



Haydn at Wikipedia

Haydn by J. Cuthbert Hadden at Project Gutenberg

Haydn at WorldCat Catalog

Haydn by John F. Runciman at Project Gutenberg




 Silhouette of Beethoven from about 1787

Beethoven around 1801

  Beethoven around 1804

  Beethoven 1814

The four Beethoven portraits we chose for this section show the composer at or shortly after times of important changes in his life. Some of them are connected to his travels, and some are not. Since we know that in general, Beethoven's life offers more opportunities to observe biographically important changes than interesting journeys, we should explore both in this seciton.

Advertisement of the Concert on March 26, 1778

Cologne in the 18th Century

Beethoven's first journey occurred during his childhood, in 1778, when his father wanted to present him as a "Wunderkind" pianist in a concert on March 26 in Cologne. They could have travelled the distance of about 100 km by coach or by boat down the river Rhine. However, if we consider that only a few years later, Beethoven would travel to Rotterdam with his mother by boat down the river Rhine, this option would also seem more likely for his journey to Cologne.

Historical Harbor Scene, Rotterdam

With respect to Beethoven's journey to Holland, we should quote Barry Cooper directly from the respective section or our own online biography. This journey did not take place in 1781 as Thayeer had assumed, but rather in 1783.  Let us now quote Cooper:

"By the end of 1783, Neefe's desire that Beethoven should travel had been fulfilled, but the journey to Holland was essentially a private one and there is no evidence that it was subsidized by the Elector. The circumstances surrounding the trip are related by Fischer.(14) Franz Rovantini had a sister, Anna Maria Magdalena, who was employed by a rich widow as a governess in Rotterdam. When Beethoven's mother informed her of Rovantini's death in 1781, she became anxious to visit his grave in Bonn, and eventually did so in autumn 1783. . . . A return visit by the Beethovens was arranged; Johann was unable to go, and so Beethoven went with his mother. During the journey down the Rhine, the weather was so cold that his mother reportedly held his feet in her lap to prevent frostbite. They stayed in Rotterdam for some time, and Beethoven played in several great houses there, astonishing people with his ability. He also performed on the piano at the Royal Court in The Hague, some ten miles away, on 23 November, and was paid 63 florins--far more than anyone else listed at the event. Nevertheless, he returned dissatisfied with the rewards, describing the Dutch as penny-pinchers and vowing not to go to the Netherlands again" (Cooper: 11; Cooper took the details regarding the concert in The Hague from a document of the Court of Prince Willem V of Oranien-Nassau in The Hague on November 26, 1783, which refers to a financed concert of the 23rd of November and which lists as first artist 'Mons. Beethoven, forte-piano, 12 J[ahre] 63", from "Letters to Beethoven and Other Correspondence", translated and edited by Theodore Albrecht, Vol. I: 1771-1812, University of Nebraska Press, in cooperation with the American Beethoven Society and the Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies, San Jose, San Jose State University, 1996, p. 3).

View of Vienna, 18th Century

Almost four years would pass before Beethoven would untertake his next journey, namely during the first half of 1787. It led him to Vienna. With respect to it, let us quote from the relevant section of our Online Biography:

We do not know for certain who in particular supported Beethoven's spring 1787 journey to Vienna and how it was precisely financed, but we must conclude that Beethoven at least had the Elector's permission and some letters of reference along with him. Records show that Beethoven arrived in Vienna in early April, 1787. Since we do not have any first-hand reports of Beethoven's activities during his brief stay in Vienna, we have to very cautiously look at the existing reports of his having played and improvised before Mozart and as possibly having received a few lessons from him. Mozart scholars generally advise that there is no direct evidence of such lessons having taken place. Anecdotal recollection also created the much-told story of Beethoven first playing a well-rehearsed piece which Mozart praised coldly and politely; realizing this, Beethoven supposedly asked him to give him a theme on which he then improvised so astonishingly well that Mozart ran out into the adjoining room and is supposed to have commented to his friends, "keep an eye on this one. Some day, he will give the world something to talk about." More reliable fact is that Beethoven could not stay even for two weeks, since a letter reached him from his father in Bonn, urging him to return home immediately as his mother had fallen seriously ill.

Beethoven returned home as fast as he could via Munich and Augsburg. There he met the piano maker Stein and also a lawyer by the name of von Schaden. When he returned home, he arrived just in time to witness his mother's final suffering from tuberculosis. She died in July, 1787.

The first letter we have of Beethoven is that of October, 1787, to Councillor von Schaden in Augsburg.

In it he apologizes for not returning some money that gentleman had evidently advanced him so that he could continue his journey. He also describes his emotional state during the ordeal of his return journey, his mother's death and his following grief. A few passages are highlighted here:

"I must confess to you that from the time I left Augsburg, my joy and with it my health began to vanish. . . . I found my mother still alive, but in such a very deplorable state of health. She had consumption and passed away seven weeks ago after much pain and suffering. She was to me such a good, loving mother, and my best friend. Ah, who was happier than I, when I could still utter the sweet name mother and it was heard? And to whom can I say it now? To the images of her only, which my imagination calls up..."

Let us look at some key words and phrases in these sentences: Joy, Pain, Suffering, Images which my imagination calls up...

Residence of the Imperial Order at Mergentheim

During the summer before his left one in Bonn, in late summer 1791, Beethoven had an opportunity to take part in a journey which he would always remember fondly. With respect to it, we will again quote the relevant section of our own online biography, followed by a link to our own special page of this journey.

"The late summer and fall of 1791 brought with it for Beethoven a joyful trip, the memory of which he would cherish all his life. The Elector, as Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (an institution that dated back to the feudal medieval times of the Crusades) had to preside over its fall 1791 session at its Mergentheim headquarters at the Main river upstream from Frankfurt.

His musical entourage followed him up the rivers Rhine and Main in two boats. On Beethoven's boat, the court musicians also took over the task of managing their daily needs. Beethoven was relegated to kitchen duty and in Rüdesheim he received a diploma for his heroic efforts. His friend Wegeler observed that he later carefully kept his diploma in his lodgings in Vienna. At Mergentheim, the orchestra rehearsed his cantatas but found them too difficult to perform.

At a prior stopover at Aschaffenburg, Beethoven met the then famous pianist, Abbé Sterkel, whose elegant manner of playing he imitated to perfection after only briefly watching him, but it also brought with it an incident which lets us, for the first time, look at the issue of Beethoven and women. When the court musicians had dinner at a restaurant, they wanted to tease the lifeblood out of their serious and shy colleague Beethoven. They convinced the pretty young waitress who was serving them to play her charms on him. He, however, only showed her his cold shoulder. Urged on by his fellow musicians, she tried it again and received a smart box on her ears from Beethoven."

Follow Beethoven's traces from Bonn to Mergentheim
at our Special Page!

In our earlier section above, on Franz Joseph Haydn, we also referred to this composer's first journey to England and to his first meeting with Beethoven on his stopover in Bonn. As we know from our Online Biography, this meeting took place during Haydn's return stopover in Bonn in 1792. With respect to it, let us quote directly from our Online Biography:

"On his return from England, Franz Joseph Haydn, Europe's foremost composer after the December 5th, 1791, death of Mozart, stopped over in Bonn to visit the Elector in the summer of 1792 (Cooper: 38).

It is generally believed that Beethoven may have shown him his cantatas on this occasion and that due to this meeting, the plan was forged that he should go to Vienna to study with Haydn. This plan was then turned to reality in the fall of 1792. From the entries in the customary farewell album Beethoven received from his friends, it becomes clear that he must have left Bonn around November 1st - 3rd, 1792. Let us quote here a passage of the most prophetic entry which Count Waldstein made:

"Dear Beethoven!  You are now travelling to Vienna in fulfillment of your long frustrated wishes. Mozart's genius is mourning and weeping over the death of her pupil. She found a refuge but no occupation with the unexhaustible Haydn; through him she wishes to form a union with another. With the help of assiduous labor you shall receive Mozart's spirith through Haydn's hands. Your true friend Waldstein"  (TF: 115).

With respect to Beethoven's journey from Bonn to Vienna via Frankfort, TF dicusses the first half to Frankfort. In order to gain a lively impression of it, let us quote directly from Thayer-Forbes:

"The dates in the album prove that Beethoven was still in Bonn on November 1, 1792, and indicate that it was the last day of his sojourn there. In Duten's Journal of Travels, as translated and augmented by John Highmore, gent. (London, 1782)--a Baedeker's or Murray's handbook of that time--the post-road from Bonn to Frankfurt-am-Main is laid down as passing along the Rhine via Andernach to Coblenz, and thence, crossing the river at Ehrenbreitstein, via Montabaur, Limburg, Würges and Königstein;--corresponding to the route advertized in the Intelligenzblatt a few years later--time 25 hours, 43 minutes.

This was the route taken by Beeethoven and some unknown companion. Starting from Bonn at 6 a.m. they would, according to Dutens and Highmore, dine at Coblenz about 3 p.m. and be in Frankfurt about 7 next morning.

The first three pages of the memorandum book above cited contain a record of the expenses of this journey as far as Würges. One of the items is this: "Trinkgeld at Coblenz because the fellow drove us at the risk of a cudgelling right through the Hessian army going like the devil, one small thaler." This army marched from Coblenz on November 5; but on the same day a French corps, having advanced from Mainz beyond Limburg, took possession of Weilburg. The travellers could not, therefore, have journeyed through Limburg later than the night of the 3rd. We conclude, then, that it was between November 1st and 3rd that Beethoven bade farewell to Bonn, and at Ehrenbreitstein saw Father Rhine for the last time.

The temptation is too strong to be resisted to add here the contents of the three pages of the memorandum book devoted to this journey, and the reasoning-- fancies, if the reader prefers the term--drawn from them, upon which is founded the assertion that Beethoven had a travelling companion. This is probable in itself, and is confirmed by, first, two handwritings; second, the price paid for post-horses (thus, the first entry is for a station and a quarter at 50 Stüber per horese for a single passenger); third, the word "us" in the record of the Trinkgeld at Coblenz; fourth, the accounts cease at Würges, but they would naturally have been continued to Vienna had they been noted down by Beethoven from motives of economy; fifth, the payment of 2 fl. for dinner and supper is certainly more than a young man, not overburdened with money, would in those days have spent at the post-house.

We may suppose, then, that the companions have reached the end of their journey in common, and sit down to compute and divide the expenses. . . . " [TF: 115-116].

" . . . We are left to imagine his arrival in Frankfurt and his departure thence via Nuremberg, Regensburg, Passau and Linz in the public post-coach for Vienna" [TF: 117].

How Beethoven settled in Vienna is described in detail in our Online Biography and is not part of our current exploration.





After the end of his official musical training in the spring of 1795, it would not take long until Beethoven would embark on his first journey in the winter of 1796. Our own Online Biography can provide us with details of it:

"While Beethoven was also reunited with his brother Nikolaus Johannes who came to Vienna towards the end of 1795 (he soon found a position as a pharmacist), he also made plans for a journey to Prague and Berlin in 1796. His most important patron, Prince Lichnowsky, with whom he had lodged since soon after his settling in Vienna, traveled with him to Prague (as the Prince had done before with Mozart in 1789). From Beethoven's letter to Nikolaus Johannes van Beethoven of February 17th, 1796, we learn:

 "Prag, den 19. Februar [1796](1)

Lieber Bruder! um daß du doch wenigstens nur Weißt, wo ich bin und was ich mache, muß ich dir doch schreiben. fürs erste geht mir's gut, recht gut. meine Kunst erwirbt mir Freunde und Achtung. was will ich mehr. au[c]h Geld werde ich diesmale ziemlich bekommen. ich werde noch einige Wochen verweilen hier, und dann nach Dresden Leipzig und Berlin[2] reisen. da werden wohl wenigstens 6 Wochen dran gehen bis ich zurückkomme. ich hoffe daß dir dein Aufenthalt in Wien immer besser gefallen wird. nimm dich nur in Acht vor der ganzen Zunft der schlechten Weiber. bist Du schon bei vetter Elß [3] gewesen? -- du kannst mir einmal hieher schreiben, wenn Du Lust und Zeit hast. Ja.(4)

li[ch]nowski(5) wird wohl bald wieder nach Wien, er ist schon von hier weggereiset, wenn du allenfal[l]s Geld brauchst, kannst du keck zu ihm gehn da er mir noch schuldig ist. übrigens wünsche ich, daß du immer glücklicher leben mögest, und ich wünsche etwas dazu beytragen zu können.

leb wohl lieber Bruder und, denke zuweilen an Deinen wahren treuen Bruder

L.v. Beethoven

Grüße Bruder Caspar(6)

                                                                                       L. Beethoven.

Grüße Bruder Caspar(6)
meine adresse ist: im goldenen Einhorn auf der Kleinseite . . . "

Prague, the 19th of February [1796]

Dear Brother, so that you at least know where I am and what I am doing, I have to write to you. For the time being, I am doing well, very well. My art earns me friends and respect, what do I want more. I will also earn money this time. I will stay here for a few weeks, and then I will travel to Dresden and Berlin[2]. So it will take at least 6 weeks until I will return. I hope that you will like your stay in Vienna more and more. Just beware of the whole tribe of bad women. Have you already seen cousin Elß[3]?--You can write to me here. Yes,[4]

Lichnowsky[5] will soon return to Vienna, he has already left here. In case that you need money, you can freely go to him, since he still owes me some. Otherwise, I always wish that you will live happier and happier and that I can contribute something to that.

farewell Dear brother and sometimes think of your true faithful brother

L.V. Beethoven

Greetings to brother Caspar[6]

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 1, Letter 20, p. 30 - 31.]

(Original: Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek; to (1): According to the GA, the year can be derived from other references and documents related to Beethoven's journey to Prague; to (2): Beethoven stayed in Prague until April and arrived in Dresden on April 23rd and continued on to Leipzig on April 30th, and his stay in Berlin is documented through the Meeting Minutes of the Singakademie [entries refer to June 21st and 28th; to (3): perhaps a cousin of Count Emmerich Eltz-Kempenich who lived in Vienna at that time; to (5): Prince Karl Lichnowsky; to (6): Kaspar Karl came to Vienna in the spring of 1794. Details taken from p. 30-31.)

As we can see, his stay in Prague brought Beethoven success and new friends. While Prince Lichnowsky at some point returned to Vienna, Beethoven went on to Dresden towards the end of April, stayed there for about a week, played for the Elector and received a golden snuff box as a gift, and then made his way to Berlin. His stay there could be considered as the most successful part of this journey. He played before the Court of King Frederick William II the two Grand Sonatas with obbligato violoncello, Op. 5, which he had written for Duport, the King's first violoncellist. Beethoven may have received an invitation by the King to stay permanently which he did not take up on the grounds that he considered the Prussian nobles "spoilt children" who sobbed and cried during his moving improvisations. He made one exception in his appraisal by considering Prince Louis Ferdinand's piano playing as "professional". In the summer, he returned to Vienna, and the 6 weeks he mentioned in his letter to his brother Johann had turned into several months."


In November of that year, Beethoven also successfully performed in Pressburg [Bratislava] and Pest and also tried to promote the piano of his friend Johann Andreas Streicher. (The Stuttgarter Streicher was that friend of Schiller with whom the poet had fled to Mannheim in 1782. Later, Streicher married the daughter of the Augsburg piano maker Stein, Nanette Stein, and moved the piano business to Vienna). On November 19, Beethoven wrote to Streicher from Pressburg:

 "Lieber Streicher!

vorgestern erhielt ich ihr forte piano, was wahrlich vortrefflich gerathen ist, jeder andre würde es suchen an sich zu behalten, und ich -- lachen sie ja recht, ich müßte lügen, wenn ich ihnen nicht sagte, daß es mir zu gut ist für mich, und warum?  -- weil es mir die Freiheit nimmt, mir meinen Ton selbst zu schaffen, übrigens, soll sie das nicht abhalten alle ihre forte-piano so zu machen, es werden sich auch wohl wenige finden, die ebenfalls solche Grillen haben.  am Mittwoch den 23ten dieses Mts. ist meine Akademie, will stein (1) kommen, so soll er mir herzlich willkommen seyn, Nachtlager hat er ganz sicher bey mir. --  

  was den Verkauf des forte-pianos anbelangt, so hatte sich diese Idee schon vor  ihnen <gef> bey mir entsponnen, und ich werde auch gewiß trachten, sie auszuführen.  -- für ihe Gefälligkeit, mir so willfährig zu seyn, danke ich ihnen herzlich lieber St.[reicher], ich wünsche nur in etwa ihre Gefälligkeit erwidern zu können, und daß sie ganz davon, auch ohne daß ich es ihnen hier sage, überzeugt sind, wie sehr ich wünsche, daß die Verdienste ihrer Instrumente auch hier und überall erkannt werden, und wie sehr ich wünsche, daß sie immer mich gern haben mögen, und mich herzlichst betrachten mögen  

als ihren liebenden und warmen Freund


Pressburg, am 19ten November anno 96 post christum natum

viel schönes an ihre Frau, und an Braut und Bräutigam(2). 

A Monsieur de Streicher Musicien tres renomme a Vienne abzugeben auf der Landstraße in der rothen Rose."

"Dear Streicher,

the day before last I received your forte piano, which truly has durned out excellent, any other man would want to keep it for himself, and I--you can laugh if you want, I would be lying, if I did not tell you that it is too good for me, and why?--because it takes away my freedom to create my tone by myself, which, by the way, should not keep you from making all your forte-pianos in this way, since there will be few men who have my kind of whims. On the 23rd of this month, my Academy will take place; if Stein[1] will come, I will heartily welcome him; he will surely have a place to sleep at my home.--

As far as the sale of the forte-piano is concerned, I already had this idea before you had it, and I will certainly try to carry it out.--for your kindness in obliging me, I thank you sincerely, dear St.[reicher], I only wish that I can return your kindness and that you will be convinced, as I am telling you here, how much I wish that you will always be fond of me and most sincerely consider me

as your loving and warm friend


Pressburg, on the 19th of November, anno 96 post christum natum

A Monsieur de Streicher Musicien tres renomme a Vienne to be delivered on the Landstraße at the White Rose."

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 1, Letter No. 23, p. 33-34.]

(Original at the Beethoven-Haus in Bonn; to (1): Streicher's brother-in-law, Mattäus Andreas Stein; to (2): probably Streicher'' bother-in-law, see (1] and his bride, Maria Josepha Theresia Stein, nee Dischler. Details taken from p. 34).

For a period of two to three months between his return from Berlin and his journey to Hungary, Beethoven's whereabouts are unaccounted for.

While Beethoven established himself as a successful young composer in Vienna, in 1799, he met the Hungarian von Brunsvik family. Beethoven biographical literature tells us that he visited them both in Ofen [Budapest] and at Korompa near Pressburg [Bratislava]. However, references to precise dates of such visits have not been found.

Prince Lichnowsky's Residence Grätz near Troppau

The next concrete references to a journey by Beethoven that led beyond the realm of greater Vienna and Lower Austria are those of the fall of 1806 are those of Beethoven's visit of Prince Lichnowsky at his Grätz residence near Troppau in the fall of 1806. Let us quote the relevant section from our Online Biography and after that from a passage of our Creation History to Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 23, Op. 57:

"Beethoven certainly visited Prince Lichnowsky at his estate in Troppau in Silesia during this late summer and fall. Lichnowsky reportedly asked Beethoven to play for the French military officials who were present. Beethoven refused and left "on the spot" and made his way back to Vienna by coach from the nearest town or village. [With respect to this, Cooper mentions that on his three-day journey back to Vienna, Beethoven encountered a severe storm in which "water penetrated his trunk, damaging the 'Appassionata' manuscript" (Cooper: 159).] Back in Vienna, he reportedly smashed Prince Lichnowsky's bust.

This incident, as characteristic as it may seem to us of Beethoven's passionate, violent outbursts, bears a more factual significance due to its financial consequence: His falling-out with this important patron may well have cut him off from the 600 florin a year annual allowance he used to receive from him and gave way to his insecure financial status in Vienna during the years 1806 - 1809, in spite of the many astounding works he put before the Viennese audience in his occasional academy concerts."

"Therefore, the year 1805 also did not see the publication of Op. 57 and, as Solomon (p. 145) pointed out, Beethoven might have put some last touches to it in 1806. With respect to the further fate of the manuscript in that year, Thayer reports the following:

"In October [1806] Breuning wrote to Wegeler:  "Beethoven is at present in Silesia with Prince Lichnowsky and will not return until near the end of this month. . . . His spirits are generally low and, to judge by his letters, the sojourn in the country has not cheered him."  This visit to the Prince came to an abrupt termination in a scene which has been a fruitful theme for the silly race of musical novelette writers.  The simple truth is related by Seyfried in the appendix to his Studien (page 23) and is here copied literally except for a few additional words interspersed, derived by the present writer from a conversation with the daughter of Moritz Lichnowsky: "When he [Beethoven] did not feel in the mood it required repeated and varied urgings to get him to sit down to the pianoforte.  Before he began playing he was in the habit of hitting the keys with the flat of his hand, or running a single finger up and down the keyboard, in short, doing all manner of things to kill time and laughing heartily, as was his wont, at the folly.  Once while spending a summer with a Maecenas at his country-seat, he was so pestered by the guests [French officers], who wished to hear him play, that he grew angry and refused to do what he denounced as menial labor.  A threat of arrest, made surely in jest, was taken seriously by him and resulted in Beethoven's walking by night to the nearest city, Troppau, whence he hurried on the wings of the wind by extra post to Vienna."(10; Frimmel, in his Beethoven, (2nd ed., 1903, p. 42), tells the story in essentially the same manner on the authority of a grandson of Dr. Weiser, house physician of Prince Lichnowsky.  The story ends with Beethoven's sending a letter to Prince Lichnowsky containing this passage;  "Prince, what you are, you are by accident of birth; what I am I am through myself.  There have been and will still be thousands of princes; there is only one Beethoven."  Authentic or not, the expression may well have come from the lips of Beethoven in a fit of anger.  (Dr. Weiser's version had previously been printed by F.X. Bach in the Wiener Deutsche Zeitung, August 31, 1873).

Fräulein Giannatasio del Rio related the same scene: (11: Grenzboten, xvi, Nr. 14 (1857), April 3) "Once (around 1816) Beethoven was in a gay talkative mood and told us of the time which he spent at Prince Lichnowsky's.  He spoke of the Prince with much respect.  He told how once during the invasion when the Prince had a number of Frenchmen as his guests, he (the Prince) repeatedly tried to coerce him to play for them on the pianoforte and that he had stoutly refused; which led to a scene between him and the Prince, whereupon B. indiscreetly and suddenly left the house. . . . To propitiate him for the humiliation which he had suffered, the bust of his patron had to become a sacrifice; he dashed it into pieces from its place on a cabinet to the floor. . . . " (Thayer: 402-403]

ManusCript Page of Op. 57

" . . What does that actually have to do with the Appassionata? With respect to this, Barry Cooper reports:

"It will be remembered that the Sonata in F major, Op. 57, near completion when offered to Breitkopf and Härtel in August, 1804, was still unpublished in 1806.  Beethoven, journeying to Silesia, took the manuscript and had it also with him on his return to Vienna per extra post from Troppau after the explosion at Lichnowsky's.  "During his journey," wrote M. Bigot half a century afterwards on a printed copy belonging to the pianist Mortier de Fontaine, "he encountered a storm and pouring rain which penetrated the trunk into which he had put the Sonata in F minor which he had just composed [!].  After reaching Vienna, he came to see us and laughingly showed the work, which was still wet, to my wife, who at once began to look carefully at it. Impelled by the striking beginning she sat down at the pianoforte and began playing it.  Beethoven had not expected this and was surprised to note that Madame Bigot did not hesitate at all because of the many erasures and alterations which he had made.  It was the original manuscript which he was carrying to his publisher for printing.  When Mme. Bigot finished playing she begged him to give it to her; he consented, and faithfully brought it to her after it had been printed" (Cooper: 159]


The Esterhazy Palace in Eisenstadt

A year later, Beethoven received a commission to write a Mass for Prince Esterhazy and travelled to Eisenstadt for its premiere. With respect to this, let us quote the relevant passage from our Creation History of this work:

Both Thayer (p. 423) and Cooper (p. 171) report that at the end of July, 1807, Beethoven went from Baden to Heiligenstadt and worked on the Symphony in c minor there. Therefore, Prince Esterhazy's lines of August 9, 1807, must have reached him there:

"To Herr Ludwig van Beethoven

                                                                                                 [Eisenstadt, the 9th of August, 1807]

Most Esteemed Herr van Beethoven!

With much pleasure I have learned from your letter from Baden[1] that I would have the pleasant expectation to receive the Mass from you by the 20th of this month, the fulfillment of which will be all the more of a joy to me since I expect very much of it, and the sorrow you expressed with respect to its being compared to Haydn's masses, has even heightened the value of your work.[2] By the way, I sincerely wish you a speedy restoration of your complete health and am, with all esteem,

your most agreeable

Eisenstadt the 9th of August, 1807.

[Source;  Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 1, Letter No. 292, p. 322-323; Original:  not known, text, pursuant to the GA, after the draft by an office clerk of the Prince; to [1]: refers to Letter No. 291; to [2]: pursuant to the GA this refers to the fact that Beethoven's fears were obviously well-founded, since later, in a letter to Countess Henriette Zielinka, Esterhazy wrote: "La messe de Beethoven est insuportablement ridicule et detestable . . . J'en suis colere et honteux" "The Mass by Beethoven is unsupportably ridiculous and detestable ... I am angry and ashamed"]).

As Cooper (p. 171) reports, the Mass was completed by the end of August. When Beethoven arrived with it in Eisenstadt in order to hold rehearsals, can best be seen in the following report that also gives us an impression of the fact that he could not have been happy with his quarters:

"The composer's annoyance at Eisenstadt must have been further heightened by the quarters to which he was assigned during his stay.  Victor Papp[13: Victor Papp, Beethoven es a Magyorok (Budapest, 1927), p. 71)] has discovered that instead of being given a room in the castle like a social equal, Beethoven was quartered in the apartment of the Court Secretary of Music, Joseph Baranyuai, whose principal house was in Vienna.  

These accommodations were not designed as living quarters and had been refused by a tenor singer two years earlier as being too damp.  Papp prints a fascimile of Baranyai's receipt for 20 florins as compensation for quartering Beethoven from September 10th to 16th.  Thus presumably he did not leave on the 13th as claimed by Schindler.  However, all of these anecdotes point toward a most unhappy and humiliating experience for Beethoven, and the fact that fourteen years later he referred to this performance to Schindler "with great bitterness" is understandable. . . . " (Thayer: 423-424.

Thayer further reports that in the year 1807, the 8th of September was as Tuesday, so that the Mass, as was usual in such cases, was to be performed on the next Sunday, the 13th of September. The following lines by Prince Esterhazy to his Deputy Kapellmeister Johann Fuchs show the difficulties Beethoven faced during the rehearsals:

"[Eisenstadt, the 12th of September, 1807]

To My Vice-Kapellmeister Johann Fuchs

My Vice-Kapellmeister will have to let me know the reasons why my contracted singers do not appear every time during the Musiques? as well as I have seen, today, with great displeasure, that, during the rehearsal of the Beethovenian Mass[2] that was held, of the five Contra-Alto singers, only one was present, which the Vice-Kapellmeister should have noticed, due to which I have to give the same the strict order that not only in the morning during the production of the Beethovenian mass, all of my musical and singing staff has to appear, but also that otherwise, no-one shall stay away from his duty without sufficient reason, since otherwise, I would have to hold my Vice-Kapellmeister as their Chef whose duty it is to keep everything in order and not to tolerate anything against the service, directly responsible. ,

Eisenstadt, the 12th of Sept., 1807"

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Volume 1, Letter No. 293, p. 323; Original: not known, text pursuant to the draft of the clerk at the Prince's office; to [2]: refers to op. 86].

After, as Thayer (p. 423) reports, the Mass was performed on Sunday, the 13th of September, 1807, according to the custom, "the local as well as foreign musical notabilities" gathered in the Prince's presence in order to discuss the work. When Beethoven entered, the Prince reportedly addressed him with the question, "But, my dear Beethoven, what is this that you have done again?" Thayer, relying on Schindler, reports that this question was followed by further critical remarks, and that in the presence of the Eisenstadt Kapellmeister J.N. Hummel, who, standing next to the Prince, could not hold back his laughter. However, as Thayer (p. 424) and Cooper (p. 171) point out, Beethoven did not leave Eisenstadt 'immediately'; moreover, Beethoven does not appear to have held on to a grudge against Hummel. However, as is further pointed out, Beethoven did not dedicate the work to Prince Esterhazy and also did not give the score to him.

Jerome Bonaparte


What do the above phantom images refer to? The answer is simple: To Beethoven's appointment to the Court of Jerome Bonaparte at the Court of Cassel as his Kapellmeister, which did not happen. As we know, in March 1809, Beethoven's close friends arranged for him to receive a pension that would ensure his remaining in Austria. That this turn of events also curtailed Beethoven's travel activities is a consequence thereof.

While, in 1810, Beethoven's private life saw his rather unsuccessful acquaintance and friendship with Therese von Malfatti, the year 1811 would grant him an opportunity to travel to Teplitz in Bohemia [today: Teplice in the Czech Republic], which, belonging to the realm of the Austrian Empire, was a "safe" travel destination for him.


As Thayer [p. 510-511] reports, Beethoven actually wanted to travel to the warm south. However, on the advice of Dr. Malfatti he decided to go to Bohemia and intended to travel there with Franz Oliva and with Count Franz von Brunsvik. As Thayer further writes [p. 511], the Count could not travel with him. Thayer [p. 512] notes that Beethoven arrived in Teplitz at the beginning of August 1811 and stayed at a house called "Harfe" in the Badgasse. During the first three weeks he is reported by Thayer as having acclimatized himself to taking the baths and as having worked on corrections to his pending compositions.

Varnhagen von Ense

Rahel Varnhagen von Ense, nee Levin

It should not take long for Beethoven to also find pleasant company. As Thayer [p. 512-513] reports, the young Austrian Lieutenant Karl August Varnhagen von Ense went to Tplitz in order to meet the lady of his heart, Rahel Levin from Berlin. Thayer lets him report directly:

""Kapellmeister Hummel, that dissolute eccentric, whose life was almost completely spent alternating between comfortable champagne drinks and comfortless periods of abstinence, let us hear him play the pianoforte at the Goltz house and at Clary's, also later in a concert and in such a way that even today would still not be eclipsed according to the judgement of connoisseurs, despite the great recent progress in this artistic skill. . . . Yet at the same time I became acquainted with a musicisn who in my opinion put this one completely in the shade. It was Beethoven, whose presence we had long known about, but no one had yet seen. His deafness made him shy and his peculiarities, which had become more marked through separation from other people, limited the little circulating that he did, and aggravated the difficulty that one had of running into him. However, on some of his lonely rambles in the castle park he had seen Rahel, and her facial expression, which reminded of another's whom he esteemed, gave him pleasure. A kind young man, named Oliva, who accompanied him as a true friend, arranged the acquaintance easily. The thing that Beethoven stubbornly resisted despite the most urgent pleas, which in one terrible case took the form of a Prince in Vienna wishing to use force to make him play for his guests, by which he would not be bullied; this very thing he was now willing to do and in abundance; he sat down at the piano and he played his newest, still unknown things or indulged in free fantasy. I found the man in him even more appealing than the artist. And when a close friendship between Oliva and me developed soon thereafter, I was also together with Beethoven daily and gained a still closer relationship with him through the prospect, to which he clung eagerly, that I could supply or revise texts for him for dramatic composition. It is known that Beethoven was violently anti-French and pro-German, and this is another thing that we had in common" [Thayer-Forbes: 513]

Thayer writes that this report is confirmed by a letter of Varnhagen to the commander of his regiment, Count Bentheim:

"I have made Beethoven's acquaintance. The unruly man was very friendly and gentle towards me, said many excellent things and will gladly play for Robert [Rahel Levin] some afternoon, only it is supposed to be kept secret. The strange man lives completely in his art, is very industrious, and is unconcerned about other people. You can be all the more assured by the fact that he greets you with true friendliness and wishes keenly to be excused for his forgetfulness of the moment, but such things probably happen more often with him [than with other people]. He is composing an opera for the Buda theatre for which Kotzebue has written the text. Because of Robert I am twice as well acquainted with him and cherish it three times as much" [Thayer-Forbes, S. 513-514].

As Thayer-Forbes [p. 514] further writes, to this company were added the poet Tiedge and Countes Elise von der Recke and describes them all as opponents to Napoleon and his regime and military force.

Thayer-Fores mentions Prince Kinsky as yet another visitor and that Beethoven took the opportunity of obtaining from him overdue pension payments.

Amalie Sebald

Along with Rahel Levin's friend Elise von Recke there also arrived, as Thayer-Forbes [p. 514] reports, the Berlin singer Amalie Sebald. Her family is reported as having already participated in the activities of the Berlin Singakademie for five years, and her own voice is reported as having been "fascinatingly lovely." She is also described as a friend of Carl Maria von Weber. TF writes that Beethoven was captivated by her charm and that an album of hers contains the following entry by Beethoven:

"Ludwig van Beethoven
Whom, even if you would,
Forget, you never should.
Teplitz, August 8, 1811" [Thayer-Forbes, S. 514].

From Thayer's further report we learn that Tiedge, Elise von der Recke and Amalie Sebald were o longer in Teplitz on September 6, since on this day, Beethoven wrote a letter to Tiedge in Dresden, which we are quoting here from Thayer-Forbes:

»Every day the following letter to you, you has floated in my mind; I wanted only two words at parting, but not a single word did I receive. The Countess sends a feminine handgrasp; that at least is something to talk about and for it I kiss her hands in my thoughts; but the poet is dumb. Concerning Amalie, I know at least that she is alive. Every day I give myself a drubbing for not having made your acquaintance earlier in Teplitz. It is abominable to know the good for a short time and at once to lose it again. Nothing is more insufferable than to be obliged to reproache one's self with one's own mistakes. I tell you that I shall probably be obliged to stay here until the end of this month. Write me how long you will stay in Dresden. I may feel disposed to take a jump to the Saxon capital. On the day that you went away from here I received a letter from my gracious musically inclined Archduke, that he will not remain long in Moravia and has left it for me to say whether or not I will come. This I interpret to the best of my wishes and desires and so you see me still within these walls where I sinned so deeply against you and myself. But I comfort myself with the thought that if you call it a sin I am at least a downright sinner and not a poor one. . . . Now fare as well as poor humanity may; to the Countess a right tender yet reverential handgrasp; to Amalie an ardent kiss when no one sees us. And we two embrace each other like men who are permitted to love and honor each other. I expect at least one word without reserve, and I am man enough for this." [TF: 514-515].

Thayer-Forbes concludes his report about Beethoven's Teplitz visit of 1811 by referring to Varnhagen's correspondence with Rahel Levin:

"From Varnhagen's correspondence with Rahel we learn that Oliva went on to Vienna on September 23, without Beethoven, who made a rather wide detour via Lichnowsky. Of this visit we learn in one of Jahn's notices, namely: "In the year 1811, B. was at Prince Lichnowsky's on his estate in Grätz near Troppau. The Mass in C was performed at Troppau for which everything possible was dreamed up. The master of athletics was put at the tympani; in the Sanctus Beethoven himself had to show him how to play the solo. The rehearsals lasted three days. After the performance Beethoven improvised on the organ for half an hour to the astonishment of everyone. Fuchs was the soprano Soloist."

Beethoven returned to Vienna refreshed and invigorated both in body and mind"[Thayer-Forbes: 516-517].

Beethoven's Life Maks of 1812

In the chapter to the year 1812 Thayer-Forbes [p.531] reports that Beethoven's Freund Streicher wanted to have a life mask of Beethoven for his piano showrooms, to hang it next to those of other artists. As we see, this mask does not leave a lively impression of Beethoven in this year. Perhaps, our report on his travel activities can deliver a livelier one.

We may have noticed that in 1811, Beethoven had a falling-out with Oliva. With respect to the reason for this, Thayer-Forbes [p. 531-532] quotes two letters of Oliva to Varnhagen:

"On March 23 Oliva writes: "I should like to write you a good deal about the things that sadden me, about Stoll, and Beethoven still more, but I must postpone it-- I was ill lately and it moves me greatly to write about things which are so painful." In a letter of June 3 he says: "Concerning my unfortunate affairs I can only say that Of. has treated me very shabbily and I am compelled to seek another engagement; perhaps I shall accept Beethoven's renewed offer and go with him to England. Still cheated me in a very miserable manner and even sought to bring about a rupture with Beethoven, in which he was almost succesful; I am completely separated from him."

Thayer-Forbes [p. 532] gives as reason for the gathering of many members of the European nobility in Teplitzp Napoleon Bonaparte's march towards Russia with his army. Here an extract of the Teplitz Register, quoted from Thayer-Forbes:

"May 29. Emperor Franz, with a large retinue--Wrbna, Althaer, Kinsky, Zichy, etc., etc.,
June 4. Marie Louise, Empress of France and retinue; the Grand Duke of Würzburg and retinue.
July 2. The Empress of Austria and household, the Duke Anton of Saxony, with wife and household.
July 7. The Duke of Saxe-Weimar.
July 14. The King of Saxony with wife and royal household.
July 25. Prince Maximilian of Saxony with wife and royal household.
August 11, 15. Prince Wittgenstein, Baron von Humboldt, and the Prince of Curland, in Prussian service, etc., etc.
Passing from the royal and diplomatic circles, we note:
April 19. Baroness von der Recke with Demoiselle Meissner and Herr Tiedge.
July 7. Herr Ludwig van Beethoven, Composer, of Vienna, lives in the Eiche, No. 62.
July 8. Herr Carl, Prince von Lichnowsky.
July 15. Hr. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Grand Ducal Privy Councillor of Weimar, etc., etc. in the Gold. Schiff, No. 116.
July 24. Her Ludwig Baron von Arnim, landowner, with wife, then his sister-in-law, Frau v. Savigny, of Berlin.
August 5. Hr. Joachim, Baron v. Muench-Bellinghausen.
August 7. Hr. Clemens Brentano, Partikulier of Prague.
August 9. Frau Wihlemine Sebald, wife of the Royal Prussian Commissioner of Jusice, with Sister Madame Sommer, of Berlin.
August 18. Hr. Fried. Karl von Savigny, Professor, etc., of Berlin.
August 19. Hr. Varnhagen von Ense, R.I. Lieutenant v. Vogelsang, of Prague" [TF: 532].

Thayer-Forbes [p. 533] reports that Beethoven travelled from Vienna to Teplitz via Prague and arrived there on July 2 in the company of Oliva's friend Willisen. There, the composer met with Prince Kinsky and received 60 ducats from him. However, the matter of Kinsky's part of his pension could not be settled. TF then refers to the extensive Beethoven research on the topic of Beethoven's whereabouts during the period of July 2 to July 7, 1812, and then refers further discussion to a separate article in the Appendix. Let us here refer to Beethoven's letter to his "Immortal Beloved", via our own link:

Beethoven's Letter to his "Immortal Beloved"

After reading tis letter we might, perhaps, also consider Beethoven's "travel report" that is contained in this letter:

" . . . my journey here was terrible I only arrived here yesterday at 4 in the morning, since there was a lack of horses, the post chose another road, but what a terrible road, at the station before the last I was warned not to travel by night, they made me afraid of a forest, but that only challenged me--I was wrong--the carriage had to break down on this terrible road without reason, just a country road, without such coach riders as I had, I would have been stranded on the road-- Estarhazi had the same fate on the usual route with eight horses, as I with four--however, I also found some joy in it, as always when I happily overcome something . . . "

Thayer-Forbes [p. 535] discovers in the letters that Beethoven wrote to Varnhagen and Breitkopf and Härtel, which he had written after this letter, a certain fatigue:

"To Varnhagen: "There is not much to be said about Teplitz, few people and among the few nothing extraordinary, wherefore I live alone! alone! alone! alone!" To Breitkopf and Härtel: "How are we?--on that point much cannot yet be said; on the whole there are not such interesting people here as were last year and are few--a multitude of people is less of a bother than are a few" [Thayer-Forbes: 535--

Thayer-Forbes also finds traces of Beethoven's loneliness in the care that he took in answering the letter of a little girl named Emilie M. from Hamburg [the girl, a little pianist, wrote to him with the help of her governess and sent him a wallet that she had made herself]:

"Beethoven an Emilie M. in H.[amburg][1]

Töplitz, den 17. Juli 1812.

Meine liebe gute Emilie, meine liebe Freundin!

Spät kommt die Antwort auf Dein Schreiben an mich; eine Menge Geschäfte, beständiges Kranksein mögen mich entschuldigen. Das Hiersein zur Herstellung meiner Gesundheit beweiset die Wahrheit meiner Entschuldigung. Nicht entreiße Händel, Haydn, Mozart ihren Loorberkranz; ihnen gehöhrt er zu, mir noch nicht.

Deine Brieftasche wird aufgehoben unter andern Zeichen einer noch lange nicht verdienten Achtung von manchen Menschen.

Fahre fort, übe nicht allein die Kunst, sondern dringe auch in ihr Inneres; sie verdient es, denn nur die Kunst und die Wissenschaft erhöhen den Menschen bis zur Gottheit. Solltest Du, meine liebe Emilie, einmal etwas wünschen, so schreibe mir zuversichtlich. Der wahre Künstler hat keinen Stolz; leider sieht er, daß die Kunst keine Gränzen hat, er fühlt dunkel, wie weit er vom Ziele entfernt ist und indeß er vielleicht von Andern bewundert wird, trauert er, noch nicht dahin gekommen zu sein, wohin ihm der bessere Genius nur wie eine ferne Sonne vorleuchtet. Vielleicht würde ich lieber zu Dir, zu den Deinigen kommen, als zu manchem Reichen, bei dem sich die Armuth des Innern verräth. Sollte ich einst nach H. kommen, so komme ich zu Dir, zu den Deinen; ich kenne keine andern Vorzüge des Menschen, als diejenigen, welche ihn zu den besseren Menschen zählen machen; wo ich diese finde, dort ist meine Heimath.

Willst Du mir, liebe Emilie, schreiben, so mache nur die Ueberschrift gerade hieher, wo ich noch 4 Wochen zubringe, oder nach Wien, das ist alles dasselbe. Betrachte mich als Deinen und als Freund Deiner Familie.

Ludwig v. Beethoven."
My dear good Emilie, my dear friend!

My answer to your letter is late in coming; a mass of business and constant sickness must excuse me. That I am here for the recuperation of my health proves the truth of my excuse. Do not tear away the laurel wreaths of Handel, Haydn and Mozart; they possess them, but not I yet.
Your wallet will be preserved along with other things of undeserved respect from many people.
Keep at it, don't just practice art, but penetrate also to its inner laws; it deserves it, for only art and science raise men to the Divine. If you should want something at any time, my dear Emilie, write to me trustingly. A true artist has no pride. Unfortunately he sees that art has no limits; he senses darkly how far he is from the goal; and while he is perhaps admired by others, he mourns that he has not yet arrived to the point where his better genius shines as an example like a distant sun. I would rather come to visit you and your people than many rich persons who betray themselves with the poverty of their inner selves. If I should come sometime to H., I will come to you and your family. I know no other advantages of a man than those which cause him to be counted among better men. Where I find these, there is my home.
If you want to write to me, dear Emilie, address it directly here where I will be for a few weeks more, or Vienna; it is all the same. Consider me as your friend and as a friend of your family.

Ludwig v. Beethoven. [Quoted from TF: 535-536].

German Text Source: Ludwig van Beethoven. Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 585, p. 274-275; text pursuant to First Print in: Thayer III, p. 209.

[To [1]: According to the GA, about the sender of the letter nothing is know except what Thayer reports: " . . . a little pianist 'with such an enthusiasm for Beethoven that she wrote the composer privately with the help of her governess enclosing a wallet of her own making which she shyly offered". According to the GA this letter is identical with the letter that Beethoven had sent via the publisher Breitkopf & Härtel to Hamburg].

As Thayer-Forbes [p. 536] reports, there is little evidence of Beethoven's renewed contact with the poet Tiedge and Countess von der Recke during his 1812 stay at Teplitz, and also his contact with Varnhagen von Ense might not have been extensive.


Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

By far the most interessting and important encounter that Beethoven had during his 1812 Teplitz stay was that with Goethe. As we could read in the Teplitz Visitors' Register, Goethe arrived there on July 15, 1812. Thayer-Forbes [p. 536] reports, that Goethe first entered Beethoven's name into the list of his visits on July 19th. On the very same day, he wrote the following to his wife Christiane:

"Sage Prinz Friedrich Durchl. daß ich nicht mit Beethoven seyn kann ohne zu wünschen daß es im goldnen Straus geschehen möge. Zusammengefaßter, energischer, inniger habe ich noch keinen Künstler gesehen. Ich begreife recht gut wie er gegen die Welt wunderlich stehn muß" "Tell his Serenity, Prince Friedrich that I can not be with Beethoven without wishing that it should happen in the "goldene Straus"". I can quite understand how he finds the world to be curious" [Source: Goethe bei Zeno.org; Goethe Letters at Zeno.org, cited on December 18, 2013].

Already on the next day, Goethe went on an excursion with Beethoven to Bilin, and also the evening of the 21st of July, according to TF, they spent together. Goethe is reported as having written: "He played delightfully" [Thayer-Forbes": 536].

Although, as Thayer-Forbes further reports, Achim von Arnim and his wife Bettina [nee Brentano] arrived in Teplitz on July 24th, they could not enjoy the company of Goethe, since Goethe had a falling-out with Bettina the year before when she insulted his wife Christiane.

As Thayer-Forbes [p. 537] writes, Beethoven left Teplitz on July 27th and, on the advice of his physician, Dr. Staudenheim, went to Karlsbad and on to Franzensbrunn on August 8th. He is reported as having returned to Tepliz in mid-September. That he was still on the best of terms with Goethe is, according to Thayer-Forbes, proven by the following lines of Goethe of July 27th to his wife Christiane: "Es ist Herr von Beethoven von hier auf einige Tage nach Karlsbad gegangen: wenn ihr ihn finden könnt so brächte mir der am schnellsten einen Brief. Wäre er schon wieder fort; so geht Fürst Moriz v. Lichtenstein in einigen Tagen hierher, durch diesen wünschte ich eine umständliche Nachricht zu erhalten wie es euch geht und was ihr beschließet" "Herr von Beethoven went from here to Karlsbad for a few days; if you can find him, then he could bring me a letter the fastest way. If he would already have left, then Prince Moritz v. Lichtenstein will arrive here in a few days, and through him I want to receive extensive news on how you are doing and what you have decided on" [Source: Goethe bei Zeno.org Goethe Letters at Zeno.org, cited on December 18, 2013].

Also on August 1st, Goethe wrote to Christiane and referred to Beethoven as a possible letter courier: "Wenn ich die Sendung durch Bethoven erhalte, schreibe ich noch einmal dann wirds nicht mehr nöthig seyn" "If I should receive the news through Beethoven, I shall write one more time, and then nothing further will be neceesary" [Source: Goethe bei Zeno.org Goethe Letters at Zeno.org, cited on December 18, 2013].

As Thayer-Forbes [p. 537] reports, somewhat later, Goethe [according to TDR on September 2, 1812] wrote to his friend, the composer Carl Friedrich Zelter in Berlin:

»Beethoven habe ich in Töplitz kennen gelernt. Sein Talent hat mich im Erstaunen gesetzt; allein er ist leider eine ganz ungebändigte Persönlichkeit, die zwar gar nicht Unrecht hat, wenn sie die Welt detestabel findet, aber sie freilich dadurch weder für sich noch für andere genußreicher macht. Sehr zu entschuldigen ist er hingegen und sehr zu bedauern, da ihn sein Gehör verläßt, was vielleicht dem musikalischen Theil seines Wesens weniger als dem geselligen schadet. Er, der ohnehin lakonischer Natur ist, wird es nun doppelt durch diesen Mangel« "I made Beethoven's acqwuaintance in Teplitz. His talent amazed me; unfortunately he is an utterly untamed personality, who is not altogether in the wrong in holding the world detestable but surely does not make it any the more enjoyable either for himself or others by his attitude. He is easily excused, on the other hand, and much to be pitied, as his hearing is leaving him, which, perhaps, mars the musical part of his nature less than the social. He is of a laconic nature and will become doubly so because of this lack (quoted from TF: 537) [TDR III: 320].

Goethe's and Beethoven's alleged behavior
in Teplitzer

Goethe's and Beethoven's alleged too reverential respectively rather disrespectful public Teplitz behavior which is also questioned by Thayer-Forbes [p. 537] is represented by us in "phantom" form, above. With this, let us leave this topic behind.

With respect to Beethoven's benefit concert for the Baden fire victims and with respect to Beethoven's own opinion of Goethe, let us quote his letter of August 9, 1812, directed at Breifkopf & Härtel in Leipzig:

" . . .. in K.[arlsbad] spielte ich den sachsen und Preußen etwas vor zum besten der Abgebrannten stadt Baden, es war so zu sagen ein armes Konzert für die armen -- der Signore polledrone half mir dabey und nach dem er sich einmal wie gewöhnlich abgeängstigt hatte spielte er gut -- . . . Göthe behagt die Hofluft zu sehr mehr als einem Dichter ziemt, Es ist nicht vilemehr über die lächerlichkeiten der Virtuosen hier zu reden, wenn Dichter, die als die ersten Lehrer der Nation angesehn seyn sollten, über diesem schimmer alles andere vergessen können -- . . . " " . . . in K., I played before the Saxons and Prussians, for the benefit of the fire victims of the city of Baden, it was, in a way, a poor concert for the poor--Signor Polledrone helped me with it, and, after having frightened himself thoroughly, he played well-- . . . Goethe is too fond of [Imperial] Court air, more than behooves a poet. Here, one should rather not talk about ridiculous virtuosos when poets who should be the first teachers of the nation, forget everything else besides it [the love of Court]-- . . . "

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe Vol. 2, Letter No. 591, p. 285 - 287].

[On our separate Page on Beethoven and Liszt, we also reported about the benefit concert: Liszt and Beethoven].

As Thayer-Forbes [p. 538] reports, on September 7, Beethoven was back on his way to Karlsbad and leaves room for the possibility that Goethe and the composer have met there, once more. While Goethe left Karlsbad on September 12th, he is reported as having noted in his diary on September 8th: "Beethovens Ankunft" ["Beethoven's arrival"]. Beethoven, himself, arrived in Teplitz in mid-September, though not in healthier condition, but rather in a worse one. However, his stay was somewhat sweetened by the company of Amalie Sebald. Here some letters of the composer to her:

"Beethoven an Amile Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, 17. September 1812][1]

Ich melde ihnen nur, daß der Tyrann ganz Sklawisch an das Bett' gefesselt ist--so ist es! ich werde froh seyn, wenn ich nur noch mit dem Verlust des heutigen Tages durchkomme; Mein gestriger spaziergang bey Anbruch des Tages in den wäldern, wo es sehr neblicht war, hat meine Unpäßlichkeit vergrößert, und vieleicht meine Besserung erschwert. -- tummeln sie sich derweil mit Russen, Lappländern, Samojeden etc herum, und singen sie nicht zu sehr das lied: "Es lebe hoch"

ihr Freund Beethowen

Für Fräulein Amalie Sebald"
"Beethoven to Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, September 17, 1812][1]
I am just reporting to you that the tyrant is slavishly tied to his bed--this is how it is! I can call myself lucky if I will only lose this day; my walk of yesterday morning through the woods, where it was very foggy, has increased my ill health and perhaps made my recovery more difficult.--In the meantime, mill about with Russians, Laplanders, Samojedes etc, and do not sing too much the song: ""Vivat"

your friend Beehoven

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 595, p. 291l; to [1]: refers to the fact that, as Letter No. 594, this letter was written on September 17th, 1812].

"Beethoven an Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, zwischen dem 17. und 22. September 1812][1]

Die Krankheit scheint nicht weiter voranzugehen, wohl aber noch zu kriechen, also noch kein Stillsand! dies alles was ich Ihnen darüber sagen kann -- Sie bei sich zu sehen, darauf muß ich Verzicht thun, vielleicht erlassen Ihnen Ihre Samojeden heute Ihre Reise zu den Polarländern, so kommen Sie zu

Beethoven to Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, between September 17 and 22, 1812][1]

The illness does not appear to progress any further, but rather to crawl, thus no stagnation, either! that is all that I can tell you about that--to see you at your place, I have to forego, perhaps, today, you can dismiss Your Samojedes to their polar regions so that you can come and see


[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 596, p. 291-202; to [1]: refers to the fact that this letter probably comes after Letter No. 595].

"Beethoven an Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, zwischen dem 17. und 22. September 1812][1]

Dank für alles, was Sie für meinen Körper für gut finden, für das Nothwendigste ist schon gesorgt--auch scheint die Hartnäckigkeit der Krankheit nachzulassen -- Herzlichen Antheil nehme ich an Ihrem Leid, welches auf Sie durch die Krankheit Ihrer Mutter[2] kommen muß -- Daß Sie gewiss gern von mir gesehen werden, wissen Sie, nur kann ich Sie nicht anders als zu Bette liegend empfangen -- Vielleicht bin ich Morgen im Stande aufzustehen. -- Leben Sie wohl liebe gute Amalie --

Ihr etwas schwach sich befindender

"Beethoven to Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, between the 17th and 22nd of September, 1812][1]

Thank you for everything that you find good for my body, the most necessary is already taken care of--also, the persistance of the illness appears to be abating--Please accept my sympathies regarding the suffering that you must be experiencing on account of your mother's[2] illness--That I certainly like to see you, you already know, however, I can only receive you while I am lying in bed--Perhaps tomorrow I shall be able to get up--farewell, my dear, good Amalie--

your somewhat weak


[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 597, p. 292; to [1]: refers to the fact that this letter probably comes after Letter No. 596; to [2]: refers to Wilhelmine Sebald].

"Amalie Sebald an Beethoven in Teplitz

[Teplitz, zwischen dem 17. und 22. September 1812][1]

Mein Tyrann befiehlt eine Rechnung -- Da ist sie:

Ein Huhn -- 1 fl. W.W.
Die Suppe 9 x
Von Herzen wünsche ich daß sie Ihnen bekommen möge."
"Amalie Sebald to Beethoven in Teplitz

[Teplitz, between the 17th and 22nd of September, 1812][1]

My tyrant demands an invoice-- here it is:

One chicken--1 fl. V.C.
The soup 9 x

I sincerely wish that it may agree with you."

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 598a, p. 292; to [1]: refers to the fact that it was probably written after Letter No. 597].

"Beethoven an Amalie Sebald in Teplitz.

[Teplitz, zwischen dem 17. und 22. September [1812][1]

Tyrannen bezahlen nicht, die Rechnung muß aber noch quittirt werden, und das könnnten Sie am besten, wenn Sie selbst kommen wollen NB. mit der Rechnung zu Ihrem gedemüthigten Tyrannen."
"Beethoven to Amalie Sebald in Teplitz.

[Teplitz, between then 17th and 22nd of September, [1812][1]

Tyrants do not pay, but the invoice still has to be receipted, and you could do that best if you were to come by, yourself NB. to give the invoice to your humiliated tyrant."

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 598a, p. 294; to [1]: refers to the fact that this letter comes after Letter No. 598a].

"Beethoven an Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, zwischen dem 17. und 22. September 1812][1]

Ich kann ihnen noch nichts bestimmtes über mich sagen, bald scheint es mir beßer geworden zu seyn, bald wieder im alten Gleise fortzugehn, oder mich in einen längern Krankheits Zustand versezen zu können -- könnte ich meine Gedanken über meine Krankheit durch eben so bestimmte Zeichen als Meine Gedanken in der Musik ausdrücken, so wollte ich mir bald selbst helfen -- auch heut muß ich das Bette noch immer hüthen--

leben sie wohl und erfreuen sie sich ihrer Gesundheit liebe A.
ihr Freund Beethowen

Für Amalie"
"Beethoven to Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, between the 17th and 22nd of September 1812][1]

I cannot tell you anything definite about myself, yet; on the one hand, it appears to have gotten somewhat better, on the other hand, it appears to be continuing as before, or to be putting me into a protracted state of illness--if only I could express my thoughts on illness as well as my thoughts on music, I could surely help myself, soon--also today, I have to stay in bed--

farewell and enjoy your health, my dear A.
your friend Beethoven.

For Amalie"

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 599, p. 294; to [1]: refers to the fact that this letter comes after Letter No. 598a].

"Beethoven an Amalie Selbad in Teplitz

[Teplitz, zwischen dem 17. und 22. September 1812[1]

Es geht schon liebe A., wenn sie es anständig heißen, allein zu mir zu kommen, so können sie mir eine große Freude machen, ist aber, daß sie dieses unanständig finden, so wißen sie, wie ich die Freyheit aller Menschen ehre, und wie sie auch immer hierin und in andern fällen handeln mögen nach ihren Grundsäzen oder nach willkühr, mich finden sie immer gut und als

ihren Freund Beethoven

Für Amalie von sebald"
"Beethoven to Amalie Selbad in Teplitz

[Teplitz, between the 17th and 22nd of September 1812[1]

It is alright, my dear A., if you consider it decent to come see me alone, it would really please me, however, if you find this indecent, please know how much I value the freedom of all people and whichever way you will decide, based on your principles or nilly-willy, you will always find me as your good

friend Beewhoven

For Amalie von sebald"

[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 600, p. 295; to [1]: refers to the fact that this letter comes after Letter No. 599].

"Beethoven an Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Teplitz, 22. September 1812][1]

liebe gute A.! seit ich gestern von ihnen gieng, verschlimmterte sich wieder mein Zustand, und seit gestern Abends bis jezt verließ ich noch nicht das Bette, ich wollte ihnen heute Nachricht geben, und glaubte dann wieder mich dadurch ihnen so wichtig scheinen machen zu wollen, so ließ ich es seyn -- Was träumen sie, daß sie mir nichts seyn können, mündlich wollen wir darüber liebe A. reden, immer wünschte ich mir, daß ihnen meine Gegenwart ruhe Frieden einflößte, und daß sie zutraulich gegen mich wären -- ich hoffe mich morgen beßer zu befinden, und einige Stunden werden unß noch da während ihrer Anwesenheit übrig bleiben, in der Natur unß beyde Wechselseitig zu erheben zu erheitern--

Gut' Nacht liebe A. recht viel dank für die Beweise ihrer gesinnungen für ihren Freund


in Tiedge will ich blättern[2]"
"Beethoven to Amalie Sebald in Teplitz

[Tepitz, September 22, 1812][1]

dear good A.! Since I left you yesterday, my health has been worsening, and since last evening to now I have not left my bed, I wanted to let you know but thought that I would make myself sound important to you, so I let it be--What are you thinking that you could not mean anything to me, we should speak about that in person, dear A., I always wish that my presence should bring you peace and that you would trust me--I hope to feel better tomorrow, and a few hours will remain to us during your presence in order to cheer ourselves up in nature--

Good night dear A. many thanks for proofs of your sentiments towards your friend


[Source: Ludwig van Beethoven Briefwechsel Gesamtausgabe, Vol. 2, Letter No. 601, p. 295; to [1]: refers to the fact that this letter was written on the day of Amalie Sebald's departure from Teplitz; to [2]: refers to the fact that it is not known what work of Christoph Tiedge is meant here].

Linz in Upper Austria

Where Beethoven went after his departure from Teplitz becomes clear from Thayer-Forbes following report:

"Beethoven's health must have improved soon after the 16th of September, for Kapellmeister Glöggl's Linzer Musik-Zeitung announces his arrival in that place on Octobeer 5th. "Now we have had the long wished for pleasure of having within our metropolis for several days the Orpheus and great musical poet of our time, Herr L. van Beethoven; and if Apollo is favorable to us we shall also have an opportunity to admire his art and report upon it to the readers of this journal." He had come thither, probably direct via Prague and Budweis, to pass a few weeks with his brother Johann, who gave him a large room affording him a delightful view of the Danube with its busy landing place and the lovely country and beyond" [Thayer-Forbes: 540].

Thayer-Forbes has Franz Glöggl, the son of the Kapellmeister of Linz, report as follows:

"Beethoven was on intimate terms of friendship with my father, kapellmeister of the cathedral in Linz, and when he was there in 1812, he was at our house every day and several times took meals with us. My father asked him for an Aequale for 6 trombones, as in his collection of old instruments he had a soprano and a quart trombone, whereas only alto, tenor and bass trombones were commonly used. Beethoven wanted to hear an Aequale such as was played at funerals in Linz, and one afternoon when Beethoven was expected to dine with us, my father apppointed three trombone players and had them play an Aequale as desired, after which Beethoven sat down and composed one for 6 trombones, which my father had his trombonists play, etc." [Thayer-Forbes: 541].

Thayer-Forbes concludes his report regarding musical events during Beethoven's Linz visits with the following report:

"Among the cavaliers who were in Linz was Count von Dönhoff, a great admirer of Beethoven, who gave several soirees in his honor during the composer's sojurn. I was present at one of these. Pieces were played and some of Beethoven's songs were sung, and he was requested to improvise on the pianoforte, which he did not wish to do. A table had been spread with food in an adjoining room and finally the company gathered about it. I was a young lad and Beethoven interested me so greatly that I remained always near him. Such was made for him in vain and finally the company sat down without him. He was in the next room and now began to improvise; all grew quiet and listened to him. I remained standing beside him ant the pianoforte. He played for about an hour and one by one all gathered around him. Then it occurred to him that he had been called to the table long before--he hurried from his chair to the dining-room. At the door stood a table holding porcelain dishes. He stumbled against it and the dishes fell to the floor. Count Dönhoff, a wealthy cavalier, laughed at the mishap and the company again sat down to the table with Beethoven. There was no more thought of playing music, for after Beethoven's fantasia half of the pianoforte strings were broken. I recall this fantasia with pleasure because I was so fortunate as to have heard it so near him" [Thayer-Forbes: 541].

Johann van Beethoven

Thayer-Forbes [p.541-542] then discusses Beethoven's actual reason for coming to Linz, namely his brother Johann and an unpleasant event between the brothers:

"One of Beethoven's memoranda, copied into the Fischoff manuscript, is this: "In 1812, I was in Linz on account of B." Supposing this B. to stand for Beethoven's brother it confirms certain very unpleasant information obtained in Linz (1860), from perfectly competent authority, namely, that the principal object of the journey thither was to interfere in Johann's domestic affairs.

Soon after coming to Linz, the apothecary, being unmarried and having a house much too large for his necessities, leased a part of it to a physician from Vienna, whose wife's sister some time later joined them. She, Therese Obermeyer, was described as possessing a very graceful and finely proportioned figure and a pleasing, though not beautiful, face. Johann van Beethoven soon became acquainted with her, liked her, and made her his housekeepter and--something more.

When it is considered, that the apothecary was a man of some thirty-five years, that he had gained his present position entirely by his own enterprise, perseverance and good fortune, and that, beyond advice and remonstrance, his brother had no more right to meddle in his private concerns than any stranger, it seems hardly credible that Beethoven, with all his eccentricities of character, could have come to Linz with precisely this purpose in view. But, according to the evidence, this was so. Had the motive of his visit been simply fraternal affection, and had he then and there first discovered his brother's improper connection with Therese, he could justly have employed earnest expostulation and entreaty to the end of breaking it off-- but nothing more; if unheeded, he could leave the house. But to come thither for this express object, and employ force to accomplish it, was an indefensible assumption of authority. Such, at all events, was Johann's opinion, and he refused to submit to his brother's dictation. Excited by opposition, Ludwig resorted to any and every means to accomplish his purpose. He saw the Bishop about it. He applied to the civil authorities. He pushed the affair so earnestly, as at last to obtain an order to the police to remove the girl to Vienna if, on a certain day, she should be still found in Linz. The disgrace to the poor girl; the strong liking which Johann had for her; his natural mortification at not being allowed to be master in his own house; these and other similar causes wrought him up almost to desperation. Beethoven, having carried his point, might certainly have borne his brother's anger with equanimity; might have felt pity for him and sought to soothe him in his trouble. But no; when Johann entered his room with reproaches and upbraidings, he, too, became angry and a scene ensued on which--let the curtain be drawn. It was, unhappily, more disgraceful to Ludwig than Johann. The apothecary, to use the language of the card-table, still had the commanding trump. Should he play it? The answer is in the parochial register at Linz. It is the record of marriage, November 8, 1812, of Johann van Beethoven to Therese Obermeyer. There is some slight reason to think that the journey to Linz was suddenly undertaken in consequence of a false report that Johann was about to marry Therese, and with the intention to prevent it. Whether this is true or not he lost the game and immediately hastened away to Vienna, angry and mortified that the measures he had taken had led to the very result which he wished to prevent; had given to the unchaste girl the legal right to call him "brother", and had put it in Johann's power--should he in the future have cause to rue his wedding-day--to reproach him as the author of this misfortune. . . . " [Thayer-Forbes: 542-543].

Readers of our travel page who have some life experience will be able to understand Beethoven's behaviour in connection with his loss of his Immortal Beloved and his grieving process, which does not have to mean that they will condone his behavior towards his brother in Linz. Anyone with a fiery temper such as Beethoven's who, in spite of it, just renounced his claim to personal happiness, might, in the face of a contrary brotherly lifestyle choice, lose control of his temper in a way that should rather not have happened.

While fourteen years would pass until Beethoven would embark on his last, tragic journey, the time in-between offered him little opportunity for extensive travel.

Phantom Image of London

The above phantom image is to serve as a reminder of Beethoven's long-cherished hope to travel to England which ultimately was never realized. Various sections of our online biography bear witness to this, but also to the complicated life of the increasingly deaf composer. From these sections we also know that Beethoven's attempts at raising his nephew Carl contributed to the boy's suicide attempt of the summer of 1826. With respect to Beethoven's and Carl's journey to Gneixendorf in the fall of 1826, let us quote from the last section of our online biography:

"While the event began to pave the way for Carl's personal career choice, it had a devastating effect on Beethoven which soon had him, aged fifty-five, according to Schindler, look like a man of seventy. A decision had to be reached as to Carl's future. Stephan von Breuning, a court councillor in the war department, advised on a military career and also suggested that Beethoven relinquish his guardianship. In the meantime, Beethoven had already begun to work on the last String Quartet, Op. 135. The question arose as to where Carl should recuperate after his dismissal from the hospital, while Stephan von Breuning arranged for Carl to enter the regiment of Baron von Stutterheim as a cadet on his full recovery, and he also agreed to act as co-guardian of Carl in lieu of Professor Reisser of the Polytechnicum who had laid it down.

Finally it was decided that Beethoven and Carl should spend the time Carl needed to recuperate at Johann van Beethoven's estate in Gneixendorf. Johann was in Vienna at that time and offered them that choice. On September 28th, they set out for there. It was only to be a short visit, but turned into a two-month-stay."

The Wasserhof, Johann van Beethoven's Estate

Beethoven Room in Gneixendorf

"Beethoven arrived in Gneixendorf already in a serious state of health. He did also not enjoy the company of his brother and sister-in-law. A servant named Michael was assigned to him whom he grew to trust. On the occasion of Michael's falling out of graces with Therese van Beethoven, the composer urged her to re-hire the just fired Michael. From then on, Beethoven stayed in his room for his meals. He also walked through the fields around Gneixendorf, gesticulating, humming, beating tact to the music in his "inner ear". Thus Op. 135 was completed in Gneixendorf as well as the new last movement of Op. 130. The date on the autograph of Op. 135 is October 30th, on which Johann took it to Vienna. The new finale for Op. 130 was delivered by Haslinger to Artaria on November 25th. Beethoven's relationship with Carl was still as touchy as could be expected, with both acting "in character", as usual.

Beethoven's health worsened in Gneixendorf. Soon, he could only eat soup and soft-boiled eggs, but still drank wine and contracted diarrhea. Towards the end of November, he had lost his appetite, altogether, complaining of thirst. He also developed edemous feet. All of this pointed to a serious liver disease. Johann now also became concerned with Carl's future and urged Beethoven to take him back to Vienna so that he could join his regiment soon, but did so in a letter and not in a personal argument. Beethoven's state of mind was in such a disarray at that time that he even asked his brother to leave his entire estate to their nephew Carl, thereby cutting out Therese. As for the vehicle in which they returned to Vienna, one should not rely on Schindler's biased interpretation that Johann had denied Beethoven the use of his carriage. Nevertheless, it can be assumed that they traveled in an open wagon, as Beethoven later stated to his physician, Professor Wawruch."

With this, our look at travels during Beethoven's life comes to an end. Let us now turn to travels of artists and composers during the time of Classicism and Romanticism.


         James Cook

         Alexander v. Humboldt

    Adelbert v. Chamisso

                Charles Darwin

For their discoveries, Capitain James Cook and Charles Darwin became famous not only in their native England but the world over. However, also in German-speaking realms of Europe, two men should embark on interesting journeys after Cook's death in 1779 and before Darwin would set out with the Beagle in 1831. Both men had connections to German literature: Alexander von Humboldt, together with his brother Wilhelm, to the Weimar circle around Goethe and Schiller [see the image below], and the Romantic poet and botanist Botaniker Adelbert von Chamisso with Berlin's literary circles, as, for example, with E.T.A. Hoffmann whose cartoon of Chamisso's endeavors is featured to the right of that representing Humboldt.


Sept. 14,1769

Birth in Berlin

Jan. 30,1781

Birth at the Boncourt Estate in France


Childhood and Youth.
Talents/Interests: Sciene, Painting and Drawing.
Educational Goal: Service to the Prussian State


The Bouncourts left their Estate in 1790 and France in 1792.


Astonishingly fast career in Prussian Service


The family fled through Holland to Southern Germany.


Exploration of Middle and South America


The family settled in Berlin. Adelbert v. Chamisso attended the French High School and became Page to Friederike of Prussia


Humboldt as Scientist. Writing of his Travel Account. Also in Prussian Service as Emissary to France in Paris


Chamisso served in the Prussian Military. [From 1804 on he was also co-editor of the Musenalmanachs; first attempts as poet, in the German language]


Expedition to Russia


Stay in France and Switzerland, then again in Berlin. Literary friends: ETA Hoffmann, Serapionsbrüder


Humboldt as Scientist.
Co-ordinator of Sponsorship of Science.
Further diplomatic missions.


Journey around the world on the Russian ship Rurik, as Botanist

Jan. 24,1859

Death in Berlin


Botanist and Man of Letters in Berlin. Writing of his Reise um die Welt [Journey around the World].  2nd and then 1st Custodian of the Herbarium, from 1835 on Member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.


Death in Berlin.

Humboldt at Wikipedia

Chamisso at Wikipedia

The Alexander von Humbold Digital Library

Chamisso at Project Gutenberg

Alexander v. Humboldt at Project Gutenberg

Modern Translation of Peter Schlemihl

Alexander von Humbold Information Online


E.T.A. Hoffmann

Let us begin this section with Chamisso's friend E.T.A. Hoffmann. We arleady encountered him on our website as music critic and poet. Hoffmann's travels were mostly connected to job transfers or career changes, after which either the lawyer or the artist would be in the foreground, while the other side of his personality would be in the background or adjusting itself to the requirements of his situation.



Jan. 24,1776

Birth in Königsberg.


Childhood and Youth in Königsberg.  Studies of Law. Interests: music, painting, literature.


First position as young lawyer in Glogau. 


Hoffmann lived in Berlin.


Hoffmann worked as young lawyer in Posen.


Hoffmann was transferred to Plock in Poland, as a punishment.


Hoffmann worked as a lawyer for the Prussian government in Warsaw and was a member of the Musical Society.


Hoffmann lived in Berlin, without a job.


Hoffmann lived in Bamberg as music director, music teacher and stage designer.


Hoffmann worked in Dresden and Leipzig as music director.


Hoffmann lived in Berlin, from 1816 on as Court Councillor, and as composer and poet.


Death of Hoffmann in Berlin

Interessing Hoffmann Links:

Hoffmann at Wikipedia
E.T.A. Hoffmann at Project Gutenberg
Compositions by Hoffmann at the Staatsbibliothek Bamberg
Full text of Hoffmann's 'The Devil's Elixir'
Link to our Website: Hoffmann as Music Critic of Beethoven
Link to our Website: Music and Literature
1. Hoffmann's Story Ritter Gluck
2. Hoffmann's Opera Undine [Announcement by Carl Maria von Weber]
3. AMZ-Necrologue on E.T.A. Hoffmann
Link to our Website:
E.T.A. Hoffmann's Review of Beethoven's Mass in C Major, Op. 86

Franz Peter Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert, the last composer of the First Viennese School who is counted among the composers of the Romantic period, will serve us as an example of those artists who rarely left their hometown and who did not travel extensively. Yet, with his more than 600 Lieder [songs], Schubert Schubert created his very own universe and more than made up for any lack of travelling.



Jan. 31, 1797

Birth of Schubert in Vienna


Schubert's childhood in his parents' home


Schubert was a pupil at the Imperial Convict in Vienna.


Schubert worked in Vienna, under his father, as a teacher's aid.


Schubert lived as an artist in Vienna.


During the summer, Schubert worked as music teacher in Zseliz in Hungary.


Schubert worked in Zseliz in Hungary for the second time.


Schubert spent the summer in Upper Austria.


Death of Schubert in Vienna.
Interesting Schubert Links
Schubert at Wikipedia
Schubert Lieder at The Lied and Art Songs Text Page
Digital Productions of Schubert Autographs
Link to our Website: Schubert and Beethoven

Felix Mendelssohn

Perhaps, one can describe the grandson of the great philosopher Moses Mendelssohn as the first Romantic composer who, as his classical predecessor Haydn, would be very successful in England. However, he would also travel to Italy and other places, not least of which was his visit to Goethe in Weimar!


March 3, 1809

Birth of Felix Mendelssohn in Hamburg.


Childhood of Mendelssohn. In 1811, the family moved to Berlin. There, Felix received musical instruction from Karl Friedrich Zelter, from 1816 on. In 1821 he visited Goethe in Weimar with his teacher, for the first time.


Mendelssohn's youth in Berlin. In 1825, he visited Paris with his father and also Goethe in Weimar. 1829: Premiere of J.S. Bach's St. Matthew's Passion, due to Mendelssohn's initiative.


Mendelssohn went on his first concert tours, namely to England and Scotland in 1829, and from 1830 to 1831 to Italy [with a visit to Goethe on his way there], and 1832 again to London.


Berlin, Düsseldorf and Frankfort are stations in his life during these years. In Düsseldorf, from 1833 on, Mendelssohn worked as Generalmusikdirektor, but he also directed the musical performances of the Frankfort Cäcilien-Verein.  In 1833, in spring and fall, he travelled to London, again.


Mendelssohn was Kapellmeister of the Leipzig Gewandhausorchester.  In 1837, he went to England, again..


In 1841, Mendelssohn was appointed as Royal Prussian Kapellmeister in Berlin.  In 1842, he went to England, again.


Mendelssohn lived in Leipzig during these years, but also travelled to England in 1846 and 1847.

November 4,1847

Death of Mendelssohn in Leipzig.

Interesting Mendelssohn Links
Mendelssohn at Wikipedia
Felix Mendelssohn House and Foundation, Leipzig
Works by or about Mendelssohn at World Catalog
The Mendelssohn Project
Link to our Website: Read the Passage about the Premiere of the
St. Matthew's Passion at the end of the Article.

Robert Schumann

In hindsight one can describe Robert Schumann's life as both tragic and rich. It brought him some changes of scenery on account of career moves, an interesting journey to Vienna in his youth, and several concert tours. Due to his literary interests and abilities, he also became an important German music critic of the first half of the 19th century.


June 8,1810

Birth of Schumann in Zwickau in Saxony.


Childhood and Youth of Schumann in Zwickau, which came to an end with his father's death in 1826.


After graduating from high school, Schumann tried, more or less sucessfully, to study law in Leipzig and Heidelberg [in he travelled to Vienna and discovered Schubert's Ninth Symphony.]. 1830: Journey to Italy and visit of the Milan Scala.


Piano studies with Friedrich Wieck in Leipzig, then injury of his finger.


Schumann studied composition intensively.


Schumann continued to live in Leipzig and, in 1834, founded the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik.  1840 marriage to Clara Wieck. 1844 concert tour to Russia.


At the end of 1844, the Schumanns moved to Dresden, where he lived as a musician without steady employment.


Schumann worked as music director in Düsseldorf. In 1854, he voluntarily entered an insane asylum in Endenich near Bonn.

July 29,1856

Death of Schumann in Endenich.

Interesting Schumann Links
Schumann at Wikipedia
More on Robert Schumann and his Life
Complete List of Schumann's Works
Schumann Works at World Catalog
Welcome to Zwickau, the City of Schumann
Link to our Website:
Schumann's Article on his Rediscovery of
Schubert's Ninth Symphony

Johannes Brahms

In Düsseldorf, Schumann met the young Hamburg composer Johannes Brahms and furthered him. After Schumann's tragic death, Brahms supported Clara Schumann and accompanied her on concert tours. Due to this biographical connection, we are not presenting Brahms in strictly chronological order. Looking at our brief time table, we can see that, in essence, at the beginning of his adulf life, Brahms ventured out in order to make something of himself and did so in Vienna, where he lived from 1872 on.


May 7, 1833

Brahms was born in Hamburg.


Childhood and Youth in Hamburg.


Concert Tour with the violinist E. Remenyi to Hanover [acquaintance with Joseph Joachim], Weimar [acquaintance with Franz Liszt] and Düsseldorf [acquaintance with Robert Schumann].


Intensive friendship with Robert and Clara Schumann; after Schumann's entry into the Endenich asylum, Brahms supported Clara and, after Schumann's death, also accompanied her on concert tours.


Brahms worked as choir master in Detmold.


Brahms lived in Hamburg and directed a women's choir, but did not find substantial employment.


During these years, Hamburg was still Brahms' official place of residence; in 1862, he visited Vienna for 8 months. In 1863 he was appointed as director of the Vienna Singakademie, but resigned from this post, soon. In addition to other travels and returns to his native city, he always returned to Vienna. 1865-1872: Summer sojourns in Baden-Baden.


Brahms moved to Vienna for good. Summer residences: 1873+1873: Baden-Baden;1877 and 1878 in Pörtschach, 1880 in Bad Ischl, and 1884 and 1885 in Mürzzuschlag; with his physician, Dr. Billroth, from 1878 on, Brahms also travelled to Italy nine times.

April 3, 1897

Brahms died in Vienna.

Interesting Brahms Links:
Brahms at Wikipedia
Brahms at the Austria-Forum
Brahms at The Lied Art and Song Text Page
Brahms List of Compositions
Brahms-Institute, Musikhochschule Lübeck

Anton Bruckner

At least from 1872 on, the Wagner friend Anton Bruckner and Johannes Brahms worked in the same, great musical capital: Vienna. With Eduard Hanslick as music critic on the side of those opposed to Wagner, Bruckner's life was not easy there. Taking a look at our brief Bruckner time table, we can see that he moved very slowly toward his actual goal in his life, namely, to enter music history as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. As musician, he either travelled in order to perform as organist or to attend performances of Wagner's operas and to express his admiration to Wagner in person.


September 4, 1824

Birth in Ansfelden, Upper Austria.


Childhood and Youth in Ansfelden.


Member of Boys' Choir at the Stift St. Florian.


Teacher's School in Linz.


Assistant Teacher in Windhaag and Kronstorf.


Bruckner worked in St. Florian: first as assistant teacher, and from 1850 on as Organist.  From there, he travelled to Vienna for the first time in 1854 and passed a music exam given to him by Ignaz Aßmeyer.  In 1855 he travelled to Vienna for the second time and enrolled as student of Schechter, mostly in remote studies.


Bruckner worked as organist at the Linz cathedral.  In 1865, he met Wagner for the first time in Munich and also Hans von Bülow, on the occasion of the premiere of Tristan and Isolde.


Bruckner lived and worked in Vienna and became Schechter's successor at the Vienna Conservatory, and from 1875, lector of music theory at the University of Vienna. From there, the undertook the following journeys: in 1869 as organist to France;  in 1871 a concert tour to London; in 1873 and 1876 he met Wagner in Bayreuth; in 1880 he went on a concert tour to Switzerland, namely as organist, and in 1882 he met Wagner for the last time in Bayreuth on the occasion of the premiere of Parsifal.

October 11, 10.1896

Death of Bruckner in Vienna.

Interesting Bruckner Links:
Anton Bruckner at Wikipedia
The Bruckner Journal
The Music of Eternity by David Bentley Hart
Bruckner at Classical Archives.com

Richard Wagner

With respect to Bruckner's idol Richard Wagner, we can offer you, instead of a brief time table and general links, a direct link to our special page "Beethoven and Wagner". It contains an extensive Wagner timetable and also interesting Wagner links. With respect to Wagner's personality, however, we would like to make use of our "right to remain silent."

Beethoven and Wagner

Franz Liszt

We gladly agree with Wagner's great-granddaughter and Liszt's great-great granddaugther Nike Wagner in her opinion that Franz Liszt can be counted among the most likeable musicians of the Romantic era. With respect to our topic, we would like to add that he serves as a prime example of a travelling artist of the 19th century. Below, we offer you interesting links on the topic of Franz Liszt and a special link to our own page List and Beethoven, which explores his life with respect to his connection to Beethoven.

Franz Liszt at Wikipedia
Franz Liszt at the Open Directory Project
Franz Liszt at Project Gutenberg
Franz Liszt at Worldcat.org
Printable Scores by Franz Liszt
Free Scores by Liszt at the Choral Public Domain Library
Link to our Website: Franz Liszt and Beethoven

Our contribution regarding Franz Liszt marks the end of our look at musicians of the Romantic period and also of our look at artists and their travels.


Why we have decided to conclude this page with our look at Franz Liszt who passed away in 1886 might become clear when you take a look at the images above. The first three of them refer to the year 1888 and show, from left to right, Friedrich Nietzsche who 'passed the Rubicon' at the end of this year and to the motor car that was developed by Carl Benz in 1886 and his wife Bertha who, in 1888, undertook the first journey in it from Mannheim to Pforzheim. The next images show the airplane that the brothers Wright developed, as well as themselves. In 1902, their first attempts at human flight were successful. Both technical developments ushered in an era of accelleration of speed, which then also found reflection in art, as in the opera Salome that premiered in 1905 [we also show an image of its composer Richard Strauss] and the music of "free tonality" introduced by Arnold Schoenberg, with which he had begun to experiment in 1908. We conclude this row of images with a picture of Igor Strawinsky, whose ballet music to Les Sacres du Printemps revolutionized music in 1913. A new era had begun, and its depiction and discussion would go too far beyond the scope of our above topic. However, we hope that with this page, we were able to offer you interesting reading material.