Our special thanks go to Joyce Maier of Amsterdam for her assistance in reviewing the content of our biographical overview and in providing further suggestions for the accurate presentation of Beethoven life facts.


Beethoven-Briefe. Ausgewählt und herausgegeben von Dr. Leopold Schmidt. Berlin: Volksverband der Bücherfreunde. Wegweiser-Verlag GmbH, 1922. (As source for the translation of Beethoven letters).

Beethoven Remembered. The Biographical Notes of Franz Gerhard Wegeler and Ferdinand Ries. Foreword by Christopher Hogwood. Introduction by Eva Badura-Skoda. Translated from the German Biographische Notizen über Ludwig van Beethoven (1838-1845) by Frederick Noonan. Arlington, Va:Great Ocean Publishers, 1987.

Breuning, Gerhard von. Memories of Beethoven. From the House of the Black-Robed Spaniards. Edited by Maynard Solomon. Translated from the German by Henry Mins and Maynard Solomon. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Cooper, Barry: Beethoven. (Master Musician Series, edited by Stanley Sadie). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kolodin, Irving: The Interior Beethoven. New York: A. Knopf, 1975.

Ludwig van Beethoven in Briefen und Lebensdokumenten. Ausgewählt und erläutert von Anton Wurz und Reinhold Schimkat. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam Jun., 1961. (As source for the translation into English of Beethoven letters).

Solomon, Maynard. Beethoven. New York: Schirmer Books, Paperback Edition 1979.

Thayer's Life of Beethoven, edited by Elliott Forbes. Princeton, New Jersey Princeton University Press, 1964.